Scientific Research is a Token of Humankind’s Survival

Exercise: Question & Answers

Understanding the text

Answer the following questions.

a. What does a scientist get instead of big money?
→ Instead of big money and becoming rich, scientists gain freedom, companionship, and self-reliance.

b. What was the problem that the nuclear powers had faced?
→ The nuclear countries had agreed to cease nuclear weapons tests, but one of the parties had covertly defied this agreement by igniting a nuclear explosion below the earth. The issue is: how will the peace keeping forces know about the infringement since both natural earthquakes and nuclear tests leave similar effects.

c. In which area did Keilis Borok’s theoretical knowledge have a direct application?
→ Keilis Borok’s theoretical knowledge in earthquakes was applied to ascertain nuclear testing. It could be used to distinguish the real earthquake and the shaking of the earth caused due to an underground nuclear explosion which also have an impact very much like this. Because of this discovery, further nuclear testing may be stopped.

d. What was the important decision that the politicians took before the Geneva Summit?
→ The leaders of the world’s most powerful nations agreed before the Geneva Summit to impose a moratorium on nuclear weapon tests. It was a decision that would have far-reaching consequences for the future of mankind. This has the potential to avert a nuclear war and rescue the human race.

e. What are the natural and man-made disasters as mentioned by the author?
→ Earthquakes, self-inflicted devastation of megacities, environmental catastrophes, and economic and social crises are among the author’s list of natural and human-made disasters.

Reference to the context

a. The professional addressed as ‘you’ in the sentence “If you are clever, why are you so poor?” refers to a….
i. lawyer ii. doctor iii. scientist iv. businessman.
Justify your choice.
The answer is scientist, of course. Scientists have sharp brains that make them brilliant people. Compared to other professions like attorneys, physicians, and businesspeople, their salaries are far lower in this group. The author’s goal is to demonstrate that scientists may be very intelligent, but that intelligence does not always translate into financial success.

b. The writer says, “I found myself in Geneva.” What does it express?
It’s an expression of the author’s astonishment. He was unexpectedly called to Geneva for a nuclear weapons conference. Scientist Frank Press from the United States used his research to support his position while debating Moscow’s specialists.

c. Are the following statements true? Why or why not? Discuss with your partner.
i. Money is more powerful than intellectual resources.
It’s not correct. While money may come and go, intellectual resources continue to provide excellent returns for a long time. Many issues arise as a result of having too much money or no money. It’s intellectual resources, on the other hand, that may help anybody succeed and reach their full potential.

ii. Intellectual resources help the survival of mankind.
This is correct. Intellectual resources are a glimmer of hope for the future of humanity. Intellectual resources have provided humanity with health alleviation, terrorist protection, a healthy lifestyle, and amusement.

iii. Basic research is a way of stalling disasters.
This is correct. People all around the globe are confident in scientific findings and leading fulfilling lives. Scientists continue to track environmental changes and warn the public about potential catastrophes. People are safe as a result of the research-based information they provide.

d. How does the essayist justify that scientific research is the survival of humankind’s survival?
According to the author, science can guarantee our well-being. Antitoxins, hardware, strands, mining, new fuel sources, development in industry and transportation, and rapid diagnosis and treatment of diseases are all outcomes of scientific theories. It’s the solution to all of life’s problems if used correctly.

Science becomes our gatekeeper and caretaker when it is put to legitimate use. This became feasible and more of giving hope after science figured out how to handle any secret nuclear testing. This has the potential to prevent nuclear war and protect the human race.

e. What can be the purpose of the essayist of using quotations in the essay?
It is the essayist’s purpose to make his main points perfectly clear to all of his readers by using quotations in the essay. In this essay, the author leans heavily on narrative quotations to support his claims.

f. Discuss and illustrate the writer’s stand that scientists are the most practical people in the world.
According to the author, new technologies and brands in industries ranging from military to entertainment might be seen as representations of the practical existence of scientists. Antibiotics, electrical devices, biotechnology, synthetic fibers, and transportation are only a few of the many useful innovations created by scientists. Science has the greatest real-world applications of any career.

Reference beyond the text

a. Everyone lives under the fear of annihilation by nuclear weapons. Explain this statement.
Nuclear weapons pose a serious threat to the safety of the human race. For instance, people and animals were slaughtered, buildings were destroyed, and poisonous substances were sprayed into the air that we breathe in 1945 as a result of the creation of new powers. Today, more upgraded weapons are being made in the greed of conquering the whole world. The upgraded Hydrogen Bomb differs from the A-Bomb in that it is several times more destructive than the former. This demonstrates that it has the capability to wipe out all life on the planet. It was decided that nuclear weapons research and testing would be halted by nuclear nations on paper. But due to blatant violations, countries like North Korea and Iran were expelled from the pact. It only goes to show that we’re all living in constant dread of being wiped out by nuclear bombs.

b. The essayist says ‘While there is science, there is hope of survival and well-being for all of us.’ Explain it.
According to the author, scientific ideas have led to advancements such as antibiotics, electronics, fibres, mining, new energy sources, and improvements in industry and transportation. Science can guarantee our well-being. It is the key to all of life’s mysteries. Scientific research serves as the foundation for technological advancements.

Scientists’ work has made our continued existence feasible. The nuclear test prohibition is one such case where science seems to be risky. When science is used properly, it serves as a protector and a caregiver for us. Having discovered a method of controlling all covert testing, this was made feasible. This has the potential to avert a nuclear war and rescue the human race.

c. Is science a blessing or a curse? Write an essay on it.
Science has changed our lives. The miracles of scientific invention have influenced industries such as agriculture, business, transportation, communication and medical. It has enhanced human life. Humanity has advanced much since the Stone Age, mostly due to scientific advances. It has influenced both material and psychological advancement.

As far as I am concerned, this is not an issue of science being good or evil. It’s all about the humans who use it as a blessing or a curse. For example, dynamite was created in order to help miners. However, some who desired authority exploited it for devastation.

Large-scale electricity generation is a major scientific accomplishment. Electricity may be used to illuminate our rooms, transport and prepare food, and raise water for the water system. It works with any hardware.

People have visited the moon. Faster transport methods may be used to provide supplies to starvation or epidemic sufferers worldwide, or to transfer soldiers ready for battle. Fast transportation has been established due to the discovery and development of various wonderful fuel sources (coal, for example). Science has enabled us to travel by automobile, rail, and ship.

People will benefit if we utilize science in a constructive way and follow a given path, but it will be hazardous if we abuse it. Science has two sides: amazing and horrible. We choose which face to gaze at. We must utilize science properly if we are to avoid annihilation, both personally and globally.


Russian scientist Vladimir Keilis-Borok wrote an essay entitled “Scientific Research is a Token of Humankind’s Survival” who views science as a vital defender and caretaker for mankind. In this essay, the author has discussed the value of science and its innovations to human well-being. 

According to the article, despite the lower pay than businessmen, attorneys, and doctors, some people choose to be scientists. This means that curiosity is what motivates people to get into science. Researchers don’t get a lot of money; they get a lot of freedom, company, and autonomy instead.

A scientist is dedicated to making improvements to the human condition at any cost. The greatest gift mankind has ever received, according to the author, is the work of scientists and scientific discoveries. He uses an example from his own life about the Geneva Summit where they made an agreement to ban nuclear weapon testing.
Almost everyone in the world was under nuclear danger as a result of the cold war. The nuclear arsenals of the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom were sufficient to wipe out the whole earth.Nuclear weapons testing were to be banned if an agreement could be reached between the three nations with nuclear arsenals. However, the accord had flaws. Initially, the nuclear-armed states had agreed to stop conducting new nuclear weapons tests, but a second nuclear explosion had been secretly conducted by one of them. But how would the other powers be able to tell if anything is wrong? A team of technical experts was assembled to deal with the problem.

Seismic wave theory, according to the author, is crucial to solve this problem. Vibrations similar to earthquakes were produced by underground nuclear explosions. His theoretical understanding was immediately put to use to identify the difference between normal tremors and tremors caused by an explosion in the context of human survival.

One of the most important decisions taken during the Cold War by scientists from all over the world, regardless of political ideology, ethnicity, origin, and nation, was the imposition of a moratorium on nuclear tests. While some people think science and common sense can’t coexist, the author believes the opposite. Scientists’ work has resulted in new businesses and technologies ranging from the military to entertainment. Everything from antibiotics to synthetic fabrics to the green revolution to genetic forensic diagnosis was made possible by scientists.

Although money is considered more important, the author believes that intellectual resources, such as scientific research and creativity, hold the promise and responsibility for breaking the stalemate. He believes that both natural and human-made disasters like earthquakes, megacities, inter conflicts, environmental catastrophes, and economic and social problems have the potential to kill a million people or more while wreaking havoc on the global economy. 

Finally, the author asserts that human survival depends on scientific research. Science is the only way to stop such dangers which threaten the very survival of civilization. It’s up to scientists and their tools to keep us safe. Science may be a human’s greatest friend and protector if used properly. Science, according to the author, gives us all a chance at long-term survival and happiness.

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