Exercise: Question & Answers
Ways with words
A. Match the words with their meanings.
a) Brevity → lasting only for a short time
b) Conquest → victory over a place or people by use of military force
c) Resemblance → the state of being alike
d) Barbarian → a member of an uncivilized group of people of culture
e) Ally → one state united to another by a treaty or a league for a military purpose
f) Nobility → state of being noble in character, quality, or rank
g) Ruthlessness → character of having no pity or compassion
h) Decimation → the killing or destruction of a large number of a population
i) Harsh → cruel
j) Elixir → liquid that is believed to cure all ills
B. Find the following words in the text and use them in sentences of your own.
Invasion → The Zhou kingdom was moved to the Eastward because of the invasion of barbarians.
Disregard → The first Emperor Qin Shi forced to work in his project as slaves who disregarded his rules.
Paramount → The Qin Dynasty was the paramount of Chinese history and culture.
Populace → By 230 BCE, Qin Shi controlled over one third populaces in China.
Revolt → The oppressed people of Qin state revolted against their weak king Hu Hai after the death of Qin Shi.
Assassination → In his later years, Qin Shi was feared of his assassination.
Serfdom → Many families in our community are still fighting against serfdom.
D. Consult a dictionary and prepare a list of ten homographs.
Bear – a animal
Bear – to carry
Close – to shut
Close – near by
Convict- a criminal
Convict – to accuse
Suspect- to question
Suspect – someone to question
Left – direction
Left – to leave behind
Right – correct
Right – opposite of the left
Refuse – garbage
Refuge – to reject
Bow – a part of a ship
Bow – a weapon that shoots arrows
F. Here is a very old limerick taken from a book “A Book of Nonsense” by Edward Lear. Practice it with the help of your teacher and find the stressed words.
There ONCE was FLY on the WALL.
I WONder ‘why DIDn’t it FALL’?
WERE its feet STUCK?
Or WAS it just LUCK?
Or does GRAvity MISS so SMALL?
A. Complete the table with the correct information from the text.
|Qin Dynasty Period||221-206 BCE (Before Common Era)|
|Zhou Dynasty Period||1046- 256 BCE|
|Warring States Period||426 – 221 BCE|
|Unification of China by Qin||230 BCE|
|First Emperor of Qin Dynasty||Qi Shi Huangdi|
|Death of Shi Huangdi||210 BCE|
|Liu Bang Period||202 – 195 BCE|
B. Answer these questions.
a) Why is the Zhou Age called a feudal age?
→ Zhou Age is called a feudal age because it resembled to some of the forms of feudalism in medieval Europe.
b) What is the location advantage of the Qin?
→ The location advantages of the Qin is, it is surrounded by the mountains and gorges in the East and had access to the North China Plain through the Yellow River.
c) What contributed to the success in the warfare as described in the text?
→ The geographical location, access to the vast resources, the size of Qin army and their expert use of the Chariot contributed to the success in the warfare.
d) Why did the Qin invite the foreign advisor, Shang Yang?
→ The Qin invited the foreign advisor Shang Yang because the kingdom lacked skilled intellectuals and politicians.
e) What were the key features of the Qin political system?
→ The key features of the Qin political system are collectivization programme and the decimation of aristocratic power, freedom of farmers from serfdom, collective responsibility of people to kingdom, fear and control, award and punishment for regarding and disregarding the kingdom etc.
f) How were the people treated during the Qin Period?
→ People were treated according to the strict laws. They had to bear collective responsibility for each other. People who did not behave according to the rules were punished. They were put under fear and control without providing education.
g) Why did Shi Huangdi stop educating ordinary people?
→ Shi Huangdi stopped educating ordinary people because he thought uneducated people were easier to control and if the people were stupid they would never doubt on the emperor and his empire.
h) What did the Qin achieve by the legalism in practice?
→ Legalism helped to create superior army, a disciplined bureaucracy, an obedient populace and the unquestioned authority of a strong central government.
i) Why did Shi Huangdi never sleep in the same room for two consecutive nights?
Shi Huangdi did not sleep in the same room for two consecutive nights because he was afraid of assassination.
j) What are the everlasting marks of the Qin Dynasty?
→ The everlasting marks of the Qin Dynasty are: legalism, the Terracotta Army, The Great Wall of China, the Grand Canal and Roads.
a) The Great Wall and the Taj Mahal are the creation of the autocratic rulers. Present your view for or against this statement.
→ The Great Wall of China and Taj Mahal of India, both are the wonders of the world. The different dynasties and modern china have contributions to build such a great wall in different areas. The initial project of the Great Wall was started by the first emperor of China Qin Shi, dated back almost 2300 years. And the Taj Mahal in Agra, Uttar Pradesh State in North India was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan during the 16th century. Thousands of workers, slaves, and peasants worked for the construction of these two great architectures. Qin Shi and Shah Jahan, both were the autocratic rulers, who built these things to show their power and supremacy over another during the time. If they hadn’t constructed such huge architectures, we wouldn’t have known about them who they were. We still remember the name of these two rulers even in this modern age because of their works. We even express our wonder for their grand projects. Though they had died years ago, we still remember their names because we have still such great structures in front of us. These are the legacies of those rulers.
b) How do you describe the pros and cons of feudalism?
→ Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was a combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships that were derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labor. Similar form of government was also in practice in ancient China during the Zhou Dynasty between 1040 to 256 BCE. Every system of government has pros and cons thought it is democracy or republic. The pros of feudalism are: it created healthy society saving common people from foreign invaders, feudal lords saved common people from tyranny of kings, end of slavery system, weak people were saved by strong, and cordial relation between lord and a vassal etc. and cons of this system are: it divided the society into two classes rich and poor, lords acquired more power and wealth and started hating poor, discouraged nationalism, loss of political unity, and the condition of peasants became deplorable
a) Write an email to your friend living abroad stating the contributions of Prithvi Narayan Shah in the unification of Nepal.
a) Write an email to your friend living abroad stating the contributions of Prithvi Narayan Shah in the unification of Nepal.
Content for the Email
Prithvi Nārāyaṇ Shah, (born 1723 —died 1775), member of the ruling Shah family of the Gurkha (Gorkha) principality, Nepal, who conquered the three Malla kingdoms of Kathmandu, Pātan, and Bhādgaon in 1769 and consolidated them to found the modern state of Nepal. He also established the capital of Nepal at Kathmandu. In 1742 Prithvi Nārāyaṇ became king of Gurkha. An ambitious ruler, he was able to quickly enlarge his territory by conquering the quarrelsome and disunited principalities around Gurkha. Prithvi Nārāyaṇ’s initial attempts to establish hegemony over the three Malla kingdoms were abortive, however; the raja of Kathmandu enlisted the aid of the East India Company in 1767 and was able to repulse Prithvi Nārāyaṇ’s encroachments. Two years later, however, after the company’s forces had been recalled, Kathmandu was taken. This allowed Prithvi Nārāyaṇ to consolidate his territories into a new “Kingdom of Nepal,” which he made into a unified, strong, and independent state. He then annexed Tarai, Kumāon, Garhwāl, Simla, and Sikkim in northern India, as well as large portions of the Plateau of Tibet and of the valleys of the Inner Himalayas. By conquering Makwānpur, however, he brought down upon himself the combined military forces of the East India Company and the nawab of Bengal, who together succeeded in retaking that area. Nepal at that time extended from the Punjab to Sikkim and was almost twice as large in land area as it is today. Prithvi Nārāyaṇ sealed his border and maintained peaceful but distant relations with the British, refusing to trade with them. He died before he could effectively organize the administration of his new country. Upon his death, Prithvi Nārāyaṇ was succeeded by his son, Pratāp Singh Shah.
b) The Table shows the major political movements in Nepal after the end of the Rana Regime. Write a paragraph of each event with their key contributions in the political landscape of Nepal.
Establishment of Democracy 1951 AD
Rana regime was rose after the Kot Massacre (Kot Parva) by Jang Bahadur Rana, giving power to his brothers and reducing the power of monarch under Shah Dynasty. The system of hereditary prime minister was established making him more powerful than the king. Rana rulers became more dictatorship and tyrannical curtailing the alienable rights of people. They exercised absolute power and exploited the people for more than 100 years. Some educated people showed their dissatisfaction again Rana rule. Political parties such as the Praja Parishand and the Nepali Rastriya Congress were formed in exile. King Tribhuvan himself gave explicit support to Nepal Praja Parishad, to try to overthrow the Ranas. The revolution of 1951 in Nepal also referred to as Sat Salko Kranti, a political movement against the direct rule by the Rana dynasty of Nepal which lasted for 104 years, begun. It marked the beginning of the political awakening and democratic movements in Nepal, and resulted in immediate abolition of the institutionalized hereditary Prime Minister system in Nepal establishing democracy.
First General Election 1959
The First General elections were held in Nepal from 18 February to 3 April 1959 to elect the 109 members of the first House of Representatives, the lower house of the Parliament of Nepal. They were held under the provisions of the 1959 constitution, which had been adopted on 12 February. More than 4.25 million people out of an overall population of about 8.55 million (1954) were eligible to vote. The Voter turnout was 42.18%. The result was a victory for the Nepali Congress, winning 74 of the 109 seats with 38% of the vote. B. P. Koirala became the first democratically elected and 22nd Prime Minister of Nepal. The speaker of the first House of Representatives was Krishna Prasad Bhattarai from Nepali Congress. The term of the parliament started from 27 May 1959 and it was dissolved on 15 December 1960.
Dismissal of Elected Government 1960
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev (11 June 1920 – 31 January 1972) was the King of Nepal from 1955 to 1972. On 15 December 1960, the then King Mahendra suspended the constitution, dissolved the elected parliament, dismissed the cabinet, imposed direct rule and imprisoned the then-prime minister B. P. Koirala and his closest government colleagues. Mahendra instituted a Panchayat hierarchical system of village, district and national councils, a variant of guided democracy. King Mahendra appointed a council of 5 ministers to help run the administration. Several weeks later, political parties were declared illegal by him.
B. Complete the texts below using the correct past forms of the verbs from the bracket.
a. The Maya established a very advanced civilisation in the jungles of the Yucatan. However, their culture disapperead by the time Europeans first arrived in the New World.
b. When I turned on the radio yesterday, I heard a song that was popular when I was at the basic level of my study. It took me back to some old memories.
c. I was looking for a job. I applied for a job last week. Fortunately, I got it and now I am a job holder.
C. Choose the correct words from the list and complete the sentences with the correct verb form.
a. Newton saw an apple falling from the tree.
b. Ramesh Bikal wrote many popular stories.
c. My jacket is expensive. It cost me Rs 5000.
d. She got up early in the morning yesterday.
e. When I was small, my father taught me at home.
f. Why did you throw the cap away?
D. Put the verb into the correct form and complete the sentences.
a. I went to see the film, but I did not enjoy it. (not/enjoy)
b. I met Rojina in town in a few days ago. (meet)
c. It was very warm, so I took off my coat. (take off)
d. Though the bed was very comfortable, I did not sleep very well. (not/sleep)
e. I started new job last week. (start)
f. He wastoo busy in the office yesterday. (be)
g. Nita invited her to the party, but she didn’t come. (invite)